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Ca - Calcium

Although compounds of the alkaline earth metal have been used since the days of the pharaoh, pure calcium metal was not obtained until Humphrey Davy electrolyzed it from a salt in 1808. Calcium is critical in the human diet for strong bones and teeth.


Atomic number   20   Density, g/mL   1 .55
Atomic weight,u   40 .08 Melting point, K   1112  
Bonding radius, A   1 .74 Boiling point, K   1757  
Atomic radius, A   2 .23 Heat of vaporization, kJ/mol   153 .6
Ionization Potential, V   6 .113 Heat of fusion, kJ/mol   8 .54
Electronegativity   1 . Specific heat, J/gK   0 .63
The oxide is a strong base.
Crystal are face centered cubic.

Electron config. : [Ar] 4s2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La* Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt 110 111 112   114
Lanthanides* Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Actinides ** Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr


Selected Compounds:
name/formula
mass, g/mol
mp,K 
bp,K 
density, g/cc
solubility(temp), g/100cc
calcium acetate
Ca(CO2CH3)2
158.17
d
-
-
37.4(0)
29.7(100)
white solid - forms gel in water solution
calcium carbonate
CaCO3
100.09
d 520
d 898
2.71
.0014(25)
.0018(75)
white, rhombahedral - chalk, marble, water scale
calcium chloride
CaCl2
110.99
772
>1600
2.15
74.5(20)
159(100)
used as a drying agent for gases
calcium fluoride
CaF2
78.08
1360
~2500
3.18
.0016(18)
.0017(25)
white, cubic - fluorite
calcium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2
74.09
d 580
d
2.24
.185(0)
.077(100)
white hexagonal - quicklime, precipitates calcium carbonate when blown on
calcium oxide
CaO
56.08
2580
2850
3.3
.13(10)
.07(80)
white, cubic - lime, calcia
calcium sulfate semihydrate
CaSO4.1/2H2O
145.15
d 163
-
-
0.3(20)
slight
white powder - plaster of paris

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